Assessment: The original parties of the JCPOA were the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States; plus Germany) plus Germany, hence the term P5+1. On Wednesday, almost a week after Russia invaded Ukraine, it was announced that Russia was part of the negotiations between the US and Iran over its nuclear program. “Top US and Russian officials for Iran have met in Vienna, a Russian
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